Moscow University

Cephalometric data of some populations of Chile and Peru

Castro Stepanova A.A. (1, 2, 3), Goncharova N.N. (1)

1) Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, Department of Anthropology, Leninskie Gory, 1(12), Moscow, 119234, Russia; 2) Paleoethnology Research Center, Novaya ploshchad’ 12/5, Moscow, 109012, Russia; 3) Lomonosov Moscow State University, Anuchin Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Mokhovaya st., 11, Moscow, 125009, Russia

Castro Stepanova Alexandra A.; ORCID ID: 0000-0003-0457-4776; e-mail:; Goncharova Natalia N., PhD; ORCID ID: 0000-0001-8504-1175; e-mail:


Introduction. During the twentieth century, the processes of the formation of macroethnic communities, such as, for example, the Chileans and Peruvians, were actively taking place in South America. The complex ethnogenesis of the countries of South America is the reason for the variety of anthropological types found in the studied countries. The population of both studied countries was formed in the process of mestization, but this process affected the regions of the west coast of South America to varying degrees. The different ratio of the Amerindian and Caucasian components in the population of Chile and Peru led to the formation of different anthropological types, which are described in this article for the first time. Materials and methods. The work is based on the results of measurements of the head and face and the analysis of photographs among students of public universities in the cities of Santiago, Arica and Cuzco. The analysis included measurements of 391 men and 164 women, the average age of the subjects was 23 years. 11 parameters of the head and face were measured according to the method of V.V. Bunak. Results. Descriptive statistics data for three samples are presented. Statistically significantly different parameters were determined. The studied groups statistically reliably differ in the linear dimensions of the smallest forehead width, the longitudinal diameter of the head, and the thickness of both lips. According to the results of the canonical discriminant analysis, the inhabitants of northern Chile occupy a predominantly intermediate position between the inhabitants of central Chile and Cuzco. Generalized portraits were obtained, and they clearly reflect the ethnic characteristics of the samples. Conclusions. All three studied groups are leptoprosopics and leptorhines, but, on average, the sample from Cuzco belongs to brachycephalic, and both Chilean samples to mesocephalic. The intergroup analysis showed that the studied groups are significantly different, and in terms of the complex of characters, the northern Chileans occupy an intermediate position between the central Chileans and the Peruvians from Cuzco.


population of Chile, population of Peru, mestization, cephalometry, generalized portrait

DOI: 10.32521/2074-8132.2021.4.029-037

Цит.: Castro Stepanova A.A., Goncharova N.N. Cephalometric data of some populations of Chile and Peru // Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin (Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seria XXIII. Antropologia), 2021; 4/2021; с. 29-37 (Published: December 22, 2021)

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