Lomonosov Moscow State University, Anuchin Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Mokhovaya st., 11, Moscow, 125009, Russia
Godina E.Z., D.Sc., prof., ORCID ID: 0000-0002-0692-420X, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Khomyakova I.A., assistant prof., Ph.D., ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2811-2034, e-mail: email@example.com; Zadorozhnaya L.V., Ph.D., ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3143-3226, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Anisimova A.V., e-mail: email@example.com; Ivanova E.M., e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Permiakova Ekaterina Yu., Ph.D., ORCID ID: 0000-0002-6490-4004, e-mail: email@example.com; Svistunova N.V., e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Stepanova A.V., e-mail: email@example.com; Gilyarova O.A., e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Zubareva V.V., e-mail: email@example.com
The aim of the research is to investigate somatic development of modern children and adolescents in the city of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk region and to compare the results with the previous data collected in 1988 [Miklashevskaya et al., 1992]. Materials and methods. In 2009-2010 within the project connected with the 300th anniversary of the Moscow University founder M.V.Lomonosov, an extensive anthropological study of growth processes in the city of Arkhangelsk and in the villages of Kholmogory (where Lomonosov was born), Matygory and Emetsk was carried out. Altogether about 2,000 children and adolescents of both sexes aged from 7 to 17 have been observed. Collected data were compared with the previous data set obtained in 1988 by the same authors in the same localities under the same investigation protocols. A large number of anthropometric and anthroposcopic characteristics (about 50) were taken on each individual including height, weight, arm, leg and trunk lengths (estimated), body diameters and circumferences, skinfold thickness, head and face dimensions. Somatotypes and stages of secondary sex characteristics were also evaluated; data on menarcheal age were collected by status-quo and retrospective methods. Estimations of body mass components were obtained by bioimpedance analysis. Data on hand grip strength were also collected. Information on child’s and parents’ birth place, parental occupation and education, as well as number of children per family and socioeconomic family status was collected by the questionnaires. Samples of buccal epithelium were collected from individuals with extra weight or obesity (BMI over 90th percentile by local standards) for further molecular-genetic analysis. All of the observations have been performed in agreement with bioethical procedures, and informed consent protocols have been collected from the subjects. Results and discussion. The comparison between modern rural and urban boys showed that the dwellers of Arkhangelsk city are slightly ahead of their village counterparts in stature and practically do not differ in weight, chest circumference and BMI. In elder girls there is a trend towards lower values of weight, chest circumference and BMI in Arkhangelsk as compared to the rural areas. It may serve as an evidence of a trend towards leptosomic body shape in modern urban girls. According to the dates of sexual maturation modern urban girls are ahead of their rural counterparts. It was also shown that modern urban and rural boys and girls are ahead of children from the same localities investigated in 1988 in chest circumference, weight and BMI. In stature the differences are more pronounced for boys in pubertal period. For modern children changes in body proportion due to bigger corpus length are typical. There are also significant differences in body circumferences and subcutaneous fat layer. For modern children bigger fat accumulation on the trunk, particularly in abdomen area, is typical. Conclusions. This investigation shows that the secular trend is continuing in the population of Arkhangelsk area. This is expressed in the changes of body shape and body proportions, earlier dates of sexual maturation, changes in body fat distribution. As there is no significant changes in stature at 17-year-olds, it is possible to conclude about stabilization of growth in length.
аnthropology, auxology, processes of growth and development, rural and urban schoolchildren, Arkhangelsk area, secular changes, acceleration of somatic development
Цит.: Godina E.Z., Khomyakova I.A., Zadorozhnaya L.V., Anisimova A.V., Ivanova E.M., Permiakova E.Yu., Svistunova N.V., Stepanova A.V., Gilyarova O.A., Zubareva V.V. Auxological investigations at Mikhail Lomonosov’s motherland // Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin (Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seria XXIII. Antropologia), 2011; 3/2011; с. 68-99Download text